Who Ruled Afghanistan before the Taliban

In November 2001, before the capture of Kunduz by United Front forces under the command of Mohammad Daud Daud, thousands of senior Commanders and regular fighters of the Taliban and Al Qaeda, Pakistani inter-agency intelligence agents and military personnel, as well as other volunteers and sympathizers of the Kunduz Airlift, which was called the evil airlift by the US armed forces around Kunduz and later used as a term in the media, were evacuated and transported from Kunduz by Pakistani Army cargo planes to the Pakistan Air Force air bases in Chitral and Gilgit in the northern regions of Pakistan. [203] [204] [205] [206] [207] [208] U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan Cameron Munter told Radio Pakistan: “The attack that took place in Kabul a few days ago was the work of the Haqqani network. There is evidence linking the Haqqani network to the Pakistani government. This is something that must stop. [216] Other senior U.S. officials such as Hillary Clinton and Leon Panetta have made similar statements. [214] [217] On October 16, 2011, NATO and Afghan forces launched Operation Knife Edge against the Haqqani Network in southeastern Afghanistan. Afghan Defense Minister Abdul Rahim Wardak said the operation “will help eliminate the insurgents before they strike in areas along the troubled border.” [218] In November 2011, NATO forces attacked Pakistani soldiers in the Pakistani border region. In 2014, Ashraf Ghani was elected President of Afghanistan. The movement won popular support in the first post-Soviet era by promising to uphold stability and the rule of law after four years of conflict (1992-96) between rival mujahideen groups.

The Taliban invaded Kandahar in November 1994 to pacify the crime-stricken southern city, and in September 1996 they captured the capital Kabul from President Burhanuddin Rabbani, a native Tajik they considered anti-Pashtun and corrupt. This year, the Taliban have declared Afghanistan an Islamic emirate, with the mullah citing Mohammed Omar, a cleric and veteran of the anti-Soviet resistance, as Amir al-mu`minin or “commander of the believers.” The regime controlled about 90 percent of the country before its overthrow in 2001. On December 6, U.S. officials announced that they had not ruled out talks with the Taliban. A few days later, it was reported that Gates saw potential for reconciliation with the Taliban, but not with al-Qaeda. In addition, he said reconciliation would end the uprising and war politically. But he said reconciliation must take place on the terms of the Afghan government and the Taliban must be subject to government sovereignty. [437] [438] Mohammad Zahir Shah, Nadir Khan`s 19-year-old son, succeeded to the throne and ruled from 1933 to 1973. In the Afghan tribal revolts from 1944 to 1947, zahir Shah`s rule was contested by the Zadran, Safi and Mangal tribes led by Mazrak Zadran and Salemai. Until 1946, Zahir Shah ruled with the help of his uncle Sardar Mohammad Hashim Khan, who held the post of Prime Minister and continued Nadir Khan`s policy. In 1946, another uncle of Zahir Shah, Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan, became prime minister and began an experiment that allowed for greater political freedom, but reversed politics as it went further than expected.

In 1953, he was replaced as Prime Minister by Mohammed Daoud Khan, the king`s cousin and brother-in-law. Daoud sought a closer relationship with the Soviet Union and a more distant relationship with Pakistan. However, disputes with Pakistan led to an economic crisis and was asked to resign in 1963. From 1963 to 1973, Zahir Shah played a more active role. The Hotakis were finally ousted from power in 1729 after a very short reign. They were defeated in October 1729 by the Iranian military commander Nader Shah, the leader of the Afsharids, at the Battle of Damghan. After several campaigns against the Afghans, he effectively reduced the power of the Hotaki in southern Afghanistan. The last ruler of the Hotaki dynasty, Shah Hussain, ruled southern Afghanistan until 1738, when the Afsharids and Abdali Pashtuns defeated him in the long siege of Kandahar. [113] Timur (Tamerlane) incorporated much of the region into his own vast Timurid empire.

The city of Herat became one of the capitals of his empire, and his grandson Pir Muhammad had the siege of Kandahar. Timur rebuilt most of the Afghan infrastructure that had been destroyed by his first ancestor. The region continued to develop under his rule. Timurid rule began to decline in the early 16th century with the emergence of a new ruler in Kabul, Babur. Timur, a descendant of Genghis Khan, created a huge new empire in Russia and Persia, which he ruled from his capital at Samarkand in present-day Uzbekistan. Timur conquered Herat in 1381 and his son Shah Rukh moved the capital of the Timurid Empire to Herat in 1405. The Timurids, a Turkish people, brought the nomadic Turkish culture of Central Asia into the orbit of the Persian civilization and established Herat as one of the most cultured and refined cities in the world. This fusion of Central Asian culture and Persian culture has been an important legacy for the future of Afghanistan. During the reign of Shah Rukh, the city served as the center of the Timurid Renaissance, whose fame coincided with Florence of the Italian Renaissance as the center of a cultural renaissance. [99] [100] A century later, Emperor Babur, a descendant of Timur, visited Herat and wrote, “The whole habitable world did not have a city like Herat.” Over the next 300 years, Eastern Afghan tribes regularly invaded India, creating vast Indo-Afghan empires.

In 1500 AD, Babur was expelled from his home in the Ferghana Valley. In the 16th century, western Afghanistan returned to Persian rule under the Safavid dynasty. [101] [102] In April 1978, the Afghan centrist government under the leadership of Pres. Mohammad Daud Khan was overthrown by left-wing military officers led by Nur Mohammad Taraki. Power was then shared by two Marxist-Leninist political groups, the People`s Party (Khalq) and the Banner Party (Parcham) – which had previously emerged from a single organization, the People`s Democratic Party of Afghanistan – and had come together in a troubled coalition shortly before the coup. The new government, which had little popular support, forged close ties with the Soviet Union, launched ruthless purges of any national opposition, and began sweeping land and social reforms, which were bitterly rejected by the pious and largely anti-communist Muslim population. Uprisings broke out against the government among tribal and urban groups, and all of these – collectively known as the Mujahideen (Arab mujāhidūn, “those engaged in jihad”) – were oriented towards Islam. Afghan traditions need a generation or more to overcome them and can only be challenged through education, he said. Humayun Tandar, who attended the 2001 International Conference on Afghanistan in Bonn as an Afghan diplomat, said that “restrictions on language, ethnicity and region were [also] stifling for Massoud. That`s why.

He wanted to create a unity that could surpass the situation we were in and that still exists today. This also applied to restrictions on religion. Jean-José Puig describes how Massoud often led prayers before a meal or sometimes asked his Muslim comrades to lead the prayer, but also did not hesitate to ask a Christian friend Jean-José Puig or the Jewish professor at Princeton University Michael Barry: “Jean-José, we believe in the same God. Please tell us the prayer before lunch or dinner in your own language. [149] Sub-Ghatullah Mujadady was elected interim president of Afghanistan for two months, and then Professor Burhanuddin Rabani, a well-known university professor in Kabul and leader of the Mujahideen`s Jamiat-e-Islami party, which fought against the Russians during the occupation, was elected by all Jahadist leaders except Golbuddin Hikmat Yar. Professor Rabani was elected official and elected president of Afghanistan by Shurai Mujahiddin Peshawer (Peshawer Mujahideen Council) from 1992 until 2001, when he officially handed over the presidency to Hamid Karzai, the next interim president appointed by the United States. During Rabbani`s presidency, parts of the country, including some northern provinces such as Mazar e-Sharif, Jawzjan, Faryab, Shuburghan and parts of Baghlan provinces, were ruled by General Abdul Rashid Dostom. During the first five years of Rabbani`s illegal tenure before the emergence of the Taliban, the eastern and western provinces and some of the northern provinces such as Badakhshan, Takhar, Kunduz, the main parts of Baghlan province and parts of Kandahar and other southern provinces were under the control of the central government, while other parts of the southern provinces disobeyed him because of his Tajik ethnicity. .